Have a Wi-Fi Device in Your Pocket? You Can Be Tracked!

Introduction (Surprise!)

I got a new iPod Touch today and one of the first things I did was fire up wi-fi and launch google maps. I noticed a button that allowed the system to automatically zoom in to my “current location”. Because the iPod does not have a GPS chip, I was expecting it to use my IP to narrow me down to a city or even a province. Imagine my surprise when it narrowed me down with an accuracy 30 meters (~100 feet)!

The first time I tried this, I was at the university. I was not too surprised by this because I know that the university has static IPs that may well be in some geo-locator database. I was more surprised (and concerned) when this worked at home. My IP is dynamic, so there is no way it could be stored in a central database. For curiosity, I looked my current IP up in a geo-locator database and it pointed me to Kingston, ON, which is 500km off, but it makes sense because my ISP operates all over Canada.

Technical Explanation (With Limited Amounts of Geekiness)

So how did the iPod do it? A few minutes of googling took me to a company called Skyhook Wireless. Without getting too technical, what this company does is it sends out about 200 cars in all cities in North America and they do what is known as “wardriving”. Essentially, they take a unique ID (MAC address for the technically inclined) from all wireless routers and log the physical location of those routers in a central database. The MAC address is freely available, even from protected networks. To be perfectly clear: you do not need to connect to a network (and thus do not need any passwords) in order to get a MAC address.

Once the location is in a central database, it is available for triangulation. Say I’m walking down the street with my iPod and press the “locate me” button. The Wi-Fi radio on my iPod sends Skyhook the MAC addresses of all the routers around me in a 80-200 meter radius. If three of those are in Skyhook’s database, I am triangulated, and skyhook knows where I am (give or take a few meters). The data is sent back to me and I get a google map of my surroundings.

Implications (Why You Should Turn Off the Wi-Fi on Your Cell Phone/iPod)

The negative implications of this can be quite clear. What if, for example, you’re not the one who requested your location? What if it was done by a virus/trojan or spyware (brings a new meaning to the term, eh?)? But your location is probably of little use to petty hackers and virus-writers. It’s also not precise enough for someone to physically walk up to you, especially if you’re in a dense place such as any city center. 30 meters worth of error downtown Toronto (or even downtown London) is enough for someone to never find you.

But what if your location is wanted by someone who knows you personally? Let’s say a spouse/significant other who thinks you’re cheating. Then your location with a 30 meter margin of error becomes more than enough for that person to know what you’re doing.

Legal Issues (This is a Law Blog, right?)

I can’t definitively say whether any of this is an invasion of privacy. Skyhook’s technologies does not circumvent any security systems and uses only information that is publicly available. I am not sure whether posting a location of a MAC address constitutes invasion of privacy (an enterprising “enthusiast” found a way to query Skyhook’s database to get Lat/Lon coordinates associated with MAC addresses). There’s an argument to be made both ways and of course none of this has been tested by a court.

What’s more concerning is that router owners cannot opt out of this. Furthermore, once a router’s MAC address is in the database, it cannot come out. The company’s stance on the issue is the following:

“we cannot remove individual access points…every access point by
definition broadcasts a radio beacon …The only way to stop an access point from broadcasting its
presence is to unplug it….we don’t actually identify the location of access points, just the signals
that they create”

That statement is technically true, but misses the point entirely. “The signals” (MAC address broadcasts) can be definitively associated with the physical router because every router has a unique MAC address (otherwise their system wouldn’t work). So, yes, they are tracking the location of access points. It is true though that once that access point (router, switch, etc.) is no longer broadcasting, it cannot be identified. This is the same thing that was said by computer security experts back in the 1980’s:

“…the only truly safe computer system is one that is disconnected from the network, switched off and buried six feet under ground…and even then I’m not sure.”

Mitigating Factors (Why You Should Not Lose Sleep Over This)

I have already alluded to some of the mitigating circumstances. Some of them are social (i.e. your location within 30 meters is useless to 99.999999% of the population) others are more technical. For example, most devices that are not laptops shut off wi-fi connectivity when their screens turn off in order to conserve their batteries. This is certainly true for iPods and iPhones and is also true for every Windows Mobile device I ever owned. Also, an internet connection is not needed to establish your coordinates (unconnected wi-fi is enough), but an internet connection IS required in order to do anything with those coordinates (i.e. send them to someone).

Also note that there need to be at least three known broadcasting access points within at most 200 meters, which likely means that this positioning system will not work in rural areas.

Lastly, and perhaps most importantly, I did not find any evidence of this system being misused. So far, there has not been any malware written that would take advantage of Skyhook’s database to track people. That doesn’t mean it cannot happen, it just means that it is not something to worry about today.

For More Info…

For the more technically inclined, you can check out my source material:

http://thebmxr.googlepages.com/Don_t_Locate_me.pdf (Background and tricking the system, very technical)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skyhook_Wireless (Wikipedia entry on skyhook. Describes the technology)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wifi (Wikipedia entry on wifi. Look at “Reach” for wifi service ranges)

Cross-Posted at Lawyerling.ca

4 Comments on "Have a Wi-Fi Device in Your Pocket? You Can Be Tracked!"

  1. On my iPod Touch, it is possible to turn off Location Services while leaving WiFi on. My location is too secure for it to know where I am, but I do that, anyway.

  2. Yeah, that just turns off the program that sends the data on the surrounding MAC addresses to Skyhook. That data can still be collected though, and if need be, sent elsewhere…or through another program…or through…well, you get the idea.

    Turning off location services is a very superficial solution. The underlying tracking technology is still there.

  3. Question:
    Let’s say someone uses a wifi enabled mobile device to conduct a transaction at some wifi hotspot. The website that processes the transaction collects the IP address his device uses. Can that same website determine not only the users location but also the identity of that mobile device? In other words, can a website determine not only where you are but who you are just by collecting an IP address or something like that?

  4. Turning off location services is a wise desicion and a great feature. Answering Shack’s question: a website can collect all possible info about you. It’s really very dangerous.

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